A phenotypic characteristic, acquired during growth and development, that is not genetically based and therefore cannot be passed on to the next generation for example, the large muscles of a weightlifter. Any heritable characteristic of an organism that improves its ability to survive and reproduce in its environment. Also used to describe the process of genetic change within a population, as influenced by natural selection.
For example, the Canadian Senate Special Committee on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide defined euthanasia as "the deliberate act undertaken by one person with the intention of ending the life of another person in order to relieve that person's suffering where Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome essay act is the cause of death" Senate of Canadap.
Euthanasia is generally classified in terms of certain subcategories, depending upon whether or not the person who dies by euthanasia is considered to be competent or incompetent and whether or not the act of euthanasia is considered to be voluntary, nonvoluntary, or involuntary. Definitions of Euthanasia Euthanasia is considered to be voluntary when it takes place in accordance with the wishes of a competent individual, whether these wishes have been made known personally or by a valid advance directive—that is, a written statement of the person's future desires in the event that he or she should be unable to communicate his or her intentions in the future.
A person is considered to be competent if he or she is deemed capable of understanding the nature and consequences of the decisions to be made and capable of communicating this decision.
An example of voluntary euthanasia is when a physician gives a lethal injection to a patient who is competent and suffering, at that patient's request. Nonvoluntary euthanasia is done without the knowledge of the wishes of the patient either because the patient has always been incompetent, is now incompetent, or has left no advance directive.
In the case of nonvoluntary euthanasia, the wishes of the patient are not known. An example of nonvoluntary euthanasia is when a doctor gives a lethal injection to an incompetent elderly man who is suffering greatly from an advanced terminal disease, but who did not make his wishes known to the physician when he was competent.
Another example would be a father who asphyxiates with carbon monoxyde a congenitally handicapped child who was never considered to be competent.
Involuntary euthanasia is done against the wishes of a competent individual or against the wishes expressed in a valid advance directive. Examples of involuntary euthanasia include a son who gives a lethal overdose of medication to his father who is suffering from cancer, but the father does not want the overdose.
Another example is a physician who, despite the advance directive of a patient indicating that he or she does not want any actions to hasten death, gives a lethal injection to the patient who is now unconscious and suffering from the final stages of a terminal illness.
Although the above definitions may seem clear, there is much confusion in the words used to describe euthanasia and other actions that result in hastening death. The term "mercy killing" is often used to describe situations of nonvoluntary and involuntary euthanasia.
In several European countries, for example the Netherlands, the difference between euthanasia, homicide, suicide, and assisted suicide appears to be relatively clear. However, in the United States and Canada there is much confusion concerning the use of the term assisted suicide and physician-assisted suicide.
Definitions of Assisted Suicide Assisted suicide is usually defined as a specific situation in which there is a suicide, that is, an act of killing oneself intentionally.
Adding the word "assisted" to suicide implies that another person provided assistance by supplying the means e. In North America, assisted suicide has also been used in the media to refer to situations that appear to have been direct acts to end the life of a person intentionally initiated by another person.
This is because assisted suicide has lesser legal sanctions than the act of killing another person even if the homicide is for the relief of pain and suffering in a terminally ill individual and can be called "euthanasia.
Sometimes there may be a fine line between what is considered assisted suicide and euthanasia. For example, during the period between July and Marchwhen euthanasia was legal in the Northern Territory of Australia, a machine was invented whereby a physician attached the patient to a computer-operated pump that contained lethal substances.
Although the physician hooked up and turned on the apparatus, the lethal injection was only given after the patient responded to a question on the computer screen by pressing on a key.
Arguments in Favor of Euthanasia Arguments in favor of euthanasia are generally based upon beliefs concerning individual liberty, what constitutes a "good" or "appropriate" death, and certain life situations that are considered unacceptable.
These arguments are generally based upon moral or religious values as well as certain beliefs concerning the value and quality of human life. They also often suppose that people are capable of making rational decisions, even when they are suffering and terminally ill.HIV/AIDS denialism is the belief, contradicted by conclusive medical and scientific evidence, that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) does not cause acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Some of its proponents reject the existence of HIV, while others accept that HIV exists but argue that it is a harmless passenger virus and not the cause of AIDS.. Insofar as they acknowledge AIDS as a.
Learning Objectives. This is an intermediate level course. After taking this course, mental health professionals will be able to: List and discuss four medical causes of mental disorders.
The Human Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Essay Words 4 Pages The human acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a retrovirus that is found in two forms HIV-1 and HIV This section on autism discusses the many theories of the causes of autism spectrum disorders in light of recent research.
|Essay: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) - Essay UK Free Essay Database||History[ edit ] A constellation of symptoms named " Gay-related immune deficiency " was noted in Ina group of scientists and doctors at the Pasteur Institute in France, led by Luc Montagnierdiscovered a new virus in a patient with signs and symptoms that often preceded AIDS.|
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|Pharmaceuticals | An Open Access Journal from MDPI||Rozenbaum had suggested at scientific meetings that the cause of the disease might be a retrovirus.|
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Written by Dr. Lewis Mehl-Madrona as part of a comprehensive site on children with brain injury, developmental disorders and related neurometabolic conditions.
AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is a syndrome caused by a virus called HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). The disease alters the immune system, .
Homosexuality is the condition of "sexual desire or behavior directed toward a person or persons of one's own sex.". Homosexuality has a number of causal factors that influence its ultimate origination in individuals; these factors will be addressed shortly. In addition, homosexuality has a variety of effects on individuals and lausannecongress2018.com, some of the historical events, religious matters.