Stategic Program Outlook for the Global Economy In a welcome change from the past few years, global growth is strong, economic slack is diminishing and there are early signs that inflation is beginning to rise.
The report was prepared under the auspices of the National Advisory Environmental Health Committee to provide direction to Federal programmes in occupational health. Technological change and the increasing psychological demands of the workplace were listed as contributing factors.
Thirty years later, this report has proven remarkably prophetic. Job stress has become a leading source of worker disability in North America and Europe. These developments are understandable considering the demands of modern work. Similarly, a more recent study of the Dutch working population found that one-half of the sample reported a high work pace, three-fourths of the sample reported poor possibilities of promotion, and one-third reported a Hr case study global diversity and inclusion at royal dutch shell fit between their education and their jobs Houtman and Kompier On the American side, data on the prevalence of job stress risk factors in the workplace are less available.
The impact of this problem in terms of lost productivity, disease and reduced quality of life is undoubtedly formidable, although difficult to estimate reliably. However, recent analyses of data from over 28, workers by the Saint Paul Fire and Marine Insurance company are of interest and relevance.
This study found that time pressure and other emotional and personal problems at work were more strongly associated with reported health problems than any other personal life stressor; more so than even financial or family problems, or death of a loved one St.
Paul Fire and Marine Insurance Company Looking to the future, rapid changes in the fabric of work and the workforce pose unknown, and possibly increased, risks of job stress.
For example, in many countries the workforce is rapidly ageing at a time when job security is decreasing. In the United States, corporate downsizing continues almost unabated into the last half of the decade at a rate of over 30, jobs lost per month Roy In the above-cited study by Galinsky, Bond and Friedman nearly one-fifth of the workers thought it likely they would lose their jobs in the forthcoming year.
The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of current knowledge on conditions which lead to stress at work and associated health and safety problems. These conditions, which are commonly referred to as psychosocial factors, include aspects of the job and work environment such as organizational climate or culture, work roles, interpersonal relationships at work, and the design and content of tasks e.
The concept of psychosocial factors extends also to the extra-organizational environment e. Frequently, the expressions work organization or organizational factors are used interchangeably with psychosocial factors in reference to working conditions which may lead to stress.
This section of the Encyclopaedia begins with descriptions of several models of job stress which are of current scientific interest, including the job demands-job control model, the person- environment P-E fit model, and other theoretical approaches to stress at work.
Like all contemporary notions of job stress, these models have a common theme: According to this view, job stress and the potential for ill health develop when job demands are at variance with the needs, expectations or capacities of the worker. This core feature is implicit in figure In this model, work-related psychosocial factors termed stressors result in psychological, behavioural and physical reactions which may ultimately influence health.
However, as illustrated in figure But putting aside this conceptual similarity, there are also non-trivial theoretical differences among these models. For example, unlike the NIOSH and P-E fit models of job stress, which acknowledge a host of potential psychosocial risk factors in the workplace, the job demands-job control model focuses most intensely on a more limited range of psychosocial dimensions pertaining to psychological workload and opportunity for workers to exercise control termed decision latitude over aspects of their jobs.
Further, both the demand-control and the NIOSH models can be distinguished from the P-E fit models in terms of the focus placed on the individual. This focus on perceptions provides a bridge between P-E fit theory and another variant of stress theory attributed to Lazarusin which individual differences in appraisal of psychosocial stressors and in coping strategies become critically important in determining stress outcomes.
In contrast, while not denying the importance of individual differences, the NIOSH stress model gives primacy to environmental factors in determining stress outcomes as suggested by the geometry of the model illustrated in figure In essence, the model suggests that most stressors will be threatening to most of the people most of the time, regardless of circumstances.
A similar emphasis can be seen in other models of stress and job stress e. The NIOSH model, for example, argues for primary prevention of job stress via attention first to psychosocial stressors in the workplace and, in this regard, is consistent with a public health model of prevention.
Although a public health approach recognizes the importance of host factors or resistance in the aetiology of disease, the first line of defence in this approach is to eradicate or reduce exposure to environmental pathogens.
Following the discussions of job stress models are short articles containing summaries of current knowledge on workplace psychosocial stressors and on stress moderators. These subsections address conditions which have received wide attention in the literature as stressors and stress moderators, as well as topics of emerging interest such as organizational climate and career stage.
Prepared by leading authorities in the field, each summary provides a definition and brief overview of relevant literature on the topic. Further, to maximize the utility of these summaries, each contributor has been asked to include information on measurement or assessment methods and on prevention practices.
The final subsection of the chapter reviews current knowledge on a wide range of potential health risks of job stress and underlying mechanisms for these effects.
Discussion ranges from traditional concerns, such as psychological and cardiovascular disorders, to emerging topics such as depressed immune function and musculoskeletal disease. In summary, recent years have witnessed unprecedented changes in the design and demands of work, and the emergence of job stress as a major concern in occupational health.
This section of the Encyclopaedia tries to promote understanding of psychosocial risks posed by the evolving work environment, and thus better protect the well-being of workers. This plan swings into action, for example, when a person is assaulted on the street, but also when someone is exposed to toxic substances or to extreme heat or cold.
It is not just physical exposures which activate this plan however; mental and social ones do so as well.BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard. making citations in a research paper online components of a personal narrative essay mobile call details analysis essay taking a stand essay essays in zen buddhism first series pdf philipp kohorst dissertation abstract communal harmony and world peace essays coming home poem owen sheers analysis essay hamlet madness essay zip code six seasons in bangladesh essay writing minds of serial killers.
The incorporation of these resources into the design of work environments should, ideally, be combined with organizational and facilities management policies that maximize the health- .
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