The belligerents strove in general to control the major transportation and trade routes, not just the sea routes that connected the colonies with the mother country, or the land routes that existed between the different colonies, but also the major fur trade routes leading to the interior of North America. These were normally along lakes and rivers and stretching from the Atlantic to the Mississippi. Many Native American Nations lived by these routes, and became involved in the wars between the great powers of Europe.
The French had also been active on the Ohio and had opened a line of communication from Lake Erie to the Forks. The rivals clashed on the Monongahela, and Washington was forced to surrender and retreat. This clash marked… Causes of the French and Indian War The French and Indian War began over the specific issue of whether the upper Ohio River valley was a part of the British Empireand therefore open for trade and settlement by Virginians and Pennsylvanians, or part of the French Empire.
Behind this issue loomed an infinitely larger one, however: Settlers of English extraction were in a preponderance in the coveted area, but French exploration, trade, and alliances with Native Americans predominated.
Map of British and French dominions in North America, In the early 17th century, an English royal charter granted land within certain limits between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans to both the Virginia Company and the Plymouth Company. In the province of Carolina was created to the south of Virginiawith a sea-to-sea grant; the Carolina charter was amended two years later, and the expanded territory would come to form the colonies of North CarolinaSouth Carolinaand Georgia.
Thus, all the lands to the south of French Canada and to the north of Spanish Floridastretching from sea to sea, were claimed by England. Starting from Canada, La Salle moved through the Great Lakes and then, after descending the Mississippi River intook possession in the name of the king of France of all lands drained by the river and its tributaries.
The lines of demarcation represent an early division between the territory of Spain to the west and Portugal to the east. For about 60 years, the conflict over which country had the stronger claim to the lands in the great Mississippi basin was to remain in abeyance.
The English gradually settled all along the Atlantic seaboard to the south of the Gulf of Saint Lawrencewhere more than a dozen colonies—including British Nova Scotiafounded in —came into existence and flourished.
In the course of time, the inhabitants of these colonies in the course of time pushed westward from tidewater areas to establish themselves in the Piedmont country. By the middle of the 18th century, the small cabins of Virginians were to be found even to the west of the Appalachians on the upper reaches of such waterways as the New and Holston rivers.
By that period, hundreds of Pennsylvanian traders had likewise settled in the villages of Indian peoples of the upper Ohio Valley, with whom Great Britain was allied.
The French, firmly in control of Canada from the early 17th century, gradually began expanding into the Great Lakes region, establishing a permanent settlement at Detroit.
New FranceNew France, 16th—18th century. Initial hostilities A conflict between the two colonial powers over their rival North American claims was doubtless inevitable, but because their areas of trade exploitation were widely separated, that conflict might have been delayed for many years had not the governor-general of New France forced the issue.
The traders, regarded as trespassers on French lands, were ordered to retreat to the eastern slopes of the Appalachians. This directive did not have the desired effect, however, and force was applied in when the important British colonial trading centre at Pickawillany on the upper Great Miami River was destroyed.
That move was followed by the capture or killing of every English-speaking trader that the French and their Indian allies could find in the upper Ohio Valley. Those actions struck directly not only at the people of Pennsylvania but also at those of Virginia. In harmony with this point of view, the governor and council of Virginia had by the end of conditionally granted about 2, square miles 6, square km of land in the Ohio Valley to settlers.
As a result, almost every important Virginia family—including members of the Washington, Lee, and Randolph families—was vitally interested in the fate of the Ohio area.
When news reached Williamsburgthe colonial capital, that the French were driving out English traders and building forts on the headwaters of the Allegheny in order to consolidate their positions, Lieut. Robert Dinwiddie determined to act. After that mission failed, the Ohio Company of Virginia, which had received a special grant of upper Ohio Valley land, was encouraged to build a fort at the convergence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers modern Pittsburghwith the understanding that troops from Virginia would support the undertaking.
The Newberry Library The French, however, were too quick. Descending the Allegheny in large numbers in the spring ofFrench troops overwhelmed the uncompleted fort before Virginia militia under Col.
Joshua Fry could arrive. The French could not ignore such a provocation and descended upon Fort Necessity, besieging it on July 3. Although Washington had been reinforced with militia troops from Virginia and a company of regular British infantry from North Carolina, the combined French and Indian force outnumbered the defenders roughly two to one.
Washington surrendered the fort, which was then burned by the French, and withdrew with his forces to Virginia.
The government of Virginia appealed to London for assistance. Edward Braddock to go to Virginia with a force and eject the French from Fort Duquesne and its environs. Edward Boscawen was sent into the region of the Gulf of St.
Lawrence with a powerful fleet to prevent further reinforcement of French troops from arriving in Canada. The war thus begun to defend British territorial claims in the Ohio Valley spread like wildfire across the continent.
Early French successes The first four years saw nothing but severe reverses for the British regulars and American colonials, primarily because of superior French land forces in the New World. Braddock was killed and his army scattered in July when the force was ambushed while approaching Fort Duquesne.
In July Gen.The French and Indian War, fought between and , made North America British rather than French. It was not a war against Indians, but rather a fight .
The British victory in the French and Indian War had a great impact on the British Empire. Firstly, it meant a great expansion of British territorial claims in the New World.
But the cost of the war had greatly enlarged Britain's debt. French and Indian War, American phase of a worldwide nine years’ war (–63) fought between France and Great Britain. (The more-complex European phase was the Seven Years’ War [–63].) It determined control of the vast colonial territory of North America.
The French and Indian War was an expensive endeavor. The King decided to pass on the costs to the colonists, and thus an onslaught of taxes. This angered the colonists, and thus "taxation without.
The Seven Years’ War (called the French and Indian War in the colonies) lasted from to , forming a chapter in the imperial struggle between Britain and France called the Second Hundred. The French army and their Indian allies dominated the battlefields of the French and Indian War for three years until a change in British leadership, paired with an outbreak of smallpox among the.