Received Jul 20; Accepted Dec The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Female Child Sexual Abusers: There is a great range in the estimated frequently from different studies and the definition of sexual abuse, sample selected, and methodology must be considered. Taken as a whole, the literature indicates that although most sexual abusers are males, child sexual abuse by females does occur and may be less rare than was once believed.
There are widely different circumstances under which women sexually abuse children and these circumstances may often differ from those causing men to do so. Many studies depict female abusers as socially isolated, loners, alienated, coming from abusive backgrounds and having emotional problems, although most are not psychotic.
However, some of the recent literature is likely to have included cases of false accusations which gives a misleading picture of the frequency of female sexual abuse and the characteristics of such women.
Most sexual offenders are men. Men commit most of the aberrant and deviant sexual behaviors such as rape, child molestation and exhibitionism. More males have paraphilias such as frotteurism, voyeurism. There are more male transsexuals and transvestites. The DSM-III-R 1 reports that except for sexual masochism, in which the sex ratio is estimated to be 20 males for each female, the other paraphilias are practically never diagnosed in females, although some cases have been reported.
Thereforeuntil recently, women have not been viewed as sexual abuse perpetrators except in unusual circumstances. Women who did sexually abuse children were considered seriously disturbed.
Maternal incest in particular has been believed to be extremely rare 2 - 5. However, currently there is increased interest in women as perpetrators of child sexual abuse and some researchers suggest it is more common than previously believed.
But there is still considerable disagreement and confusion about just how often women sexually abuse children, what type of woman is a sexual abuser, and under what circumstances the abuse occurs.
Therefore, it is not surprising that the studies report such different results. Finkelhor and Russell 6 note that some studies contain definitional problems which inflate the statistics concerning female perpetrators.
For example, the National Incidence Study figures suggest that almost half of the sexual experiences of children included a female perpetrator. However, according to the study definitions, a caretaker could be a perpetrator if she "permitted acts of sexual contact to occur.
The study by the American Humane Association had similar problems. When the data were reanalyzed to exclude these types of cases, the figures suggested that 14 percent of perpetrators against boys and six percent of perpetrators against girls were females acting alone. TravinCullin and Protter 7 observe that the concepts sexual abuse and sexual offense are often confused.
Although these terms are often used interchangeably, sexual abuse involves a sexual act perpetrated against an individual without consent, whereas sexual offense describes the same behavior but denotes it as a criminal act.
There are significant variations in definitions of sexual abuse in the literature. The definitions vary in terms of their criteria and in their specificity. They differ in the inclusion of noncontact along with contact. Some specify an upper age limit along with a minimum age discrepancy while others do not.
Is it sexual abuse when a child catches a glimpse of an exhibitionist? There is disagreement over this. Most people would not consider it abuse if a child is shown a Playboy magazine by an older playmate. But what if a young child is shown hard core pornography?
Does a mother sleeping with her child constitute sexual abuse in the absence of sexual touching? What if the child is a teenager who becomes aroused by this? Most people would agree that it is sexual abuse if a year-old woman has sexual contact with a 6-year-old boy, but not if the boy is However, what if the boy is 14?
What if the year-old boy initiates the experience with the woman and later views the experience as positive?
Some of the retrospective surveys of childhood sexual experiences include reports of sexual contacts with older women which were perceived as positive by the respondents and were initiated by the respondents.When a child lives in a stressful environment, the development of her brain’s architecture weakens and puts her at risk for cognitive impairments.
Intervention from caring adults who offer responsive relationships, however, can help reverse the effects of “toxic” stress. Characteristics or conditions that counteract the risk to which children are exposed, delayed, suppress, or neutralize negative outcomes Individual Protective Factors Temperament, cognitive ability, social skills, interpersonal awareness, effective problem solving skills, internal locus of control, high self esteem, positive orientation.
Early experiences affect a child’s cognitive and brain development. factors, family circumstances, and health risks Attending pre-kindergarten appears to improve children’s cognitive skills. Pre-kindergarten programs are typically funded and administered by public schools.
Cognitive Problem Symptoms, Causes and Effects Cognitive disorders often begin subtly but progress until they significantly impede the affected individual’s quality of life.
It is important to understand the various cognitive disorders, their symptoms and relevant treatment options. Similarly, claims for cultural effects favoring Asian children on tests of executive control (e.g., Sabbagh, Xu, Carlson, Moses, & Lee, ) must be separated from the role of bilingualism in shaping this performance.
The present study addresses these issues by examining three groups of bilingual children and one group of monolinguals performing verbal and nonverbal tasks.
The family from a child development perspective. Theories of child development, which approach the family from the child perspective, include concerns with nature versus nurture, the flexibility or plasticity of the child at different ages to being moulded by the family, and the relative permanence of family influences (Kreppner and Lerner ).