See Article History Alternative Title: Bush in Octoberthat significantly expanded the search and surveillance powers of federal law-enforcement and intelligence agencies. The USA PATRIOT Act, as amended and reauthorized frommade numerous changes to existing statutes relating to the privacy of telephone and electronic communications, the operation of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Courtmoney launderingimmigration, and other areas.
Enhancing domestic security against terrorism[ edit ] Main article: Patriot Act, Title I Title I authorizes measures to enhance the ability The u s patriots act domestic security services to prevent terrorism.
The title established a fund for counter-terrorist activities and increased funding for the Terrorist Screening Center which is administered by the FBI.
The military was authorized to provide assistance in some situations that involve weapons of mass destruction when so requested by the Attorney General. The National Electronic Crime Task Force was expanded, along with the President 's authority and abilities in cases of terrorism.
The title also condemned the discrimination against Arab and Muslim Americans that happened soon after the September 11 terrorist attacks. The impetus for many of the provisions came from earlier bills, for instance the condemnation of discrimination was originally proposed by Senator Tom Harkin D - IA in an amendment to the Combatting Terrorism Act ofthough in a different form.
It originally included "the prayer of Cardinal Theodore McCarrickthe Archbishop of Washington in a Mass on September 12, for our Nation and the victims in the immediate aftermath of the terrorist hijackings and attacks in New York City, Washington, D.
Surveillance procedures[ edit ] Main article: Patriot Act, Title II Title II is titled "Enhanced Surveillance Procedures", and covers all aspects of the surveillance of suspected terrorists, those suspected of engaging in computer fraud or abuse, and agents of a foreign power who are engaged in clandestine activities.
In particular, the title allows government agencies to gather "foreign intelligence information" from both U. Also removed was the statutory requirement that the government prove a surveillance target under FISA is a non-U. Wiretaps were expanded to include addressing and routing information to allow surveillance of packet switched networks  —the Electronic Privacy Information Center EPIC objected to this, arguing that it does not take into account email or web addresses, which often contain content in the address information.
Those who operate or own a "protected computer" can give permission for authorities to intercept communications carried out on the machine, thus bypassing the requirements of the Wiretap statute.
The law governing obligatory and voluntary disclosure of customer communications by cable companies was altered to allow agencies to demand such communications under U. Title 18 provisions relating to the disclosure of electronic communications chapterpen registers and trap and trace devices chapter and stored communicationsthough it excluded the disclosure of cable subscriber viewing habits.
IP addressespayment method and bank account and credit card numbers. The so-called "sneak and peek" law allowed for delayed notification of the execution of search warrants. The period before which the FBI must notify the recipients of the order was unspecified in the Act—the FBI field manual says that it is a "flexible standard"  —and it may be extended at the court's discretion.
The court found the searches to violate the provision that prohibits unreasonable searches in the Fourth Amendment to the U. These are seen as important by the Department of Justice because they believe that terrorists can exploit wiretap orders by rapidly changing locations and communication devices such as cell phones,  while opponents see it as violating the particularity clause of the Fourth Amendment.
The sunset provision of the Act also took into account any ongoing foreign intelligence investigations and allowed them to continue once the sections had expired. Anti-money-laundering to prevent terrorism[ edit ] Main article: It was divided into three subtitles, with the first dealing primarily with strengthening banking rules against money laundering, especially on the international stage.
The second attempts to improve communication between law enforcement agencies and financial institutions, as well as expanding recordkeeping and reporting requirements. The third subtitle deals with currency smuggling and counterfeiting, including quadrupling the maximum penalty for counterfeiting foreign currency.
The first subtitle tightened the recordkeeping requirements for financial institutions, making them record the aggregate amounts of transactions processed from areas of the world where money laundering is a concern to the U.
It also made institutions put into place reasonable steps to identify beneficial owners of bank accounts and those who are authorized to use or route funds through payable-through accounts.Subtitle B: Enhanced Immigration Provisions - Amends the Immigration and Nationality Act to broaden the scope of aliens ineligible for admission or deportable due to terrorist activities to include an alien who: (1) is a representative of a political, social, or similar group whose political endorsement of terrorist acts undermines U.S.
Under the Patriot Act, National Security Letters (NSLs) are issued by FBI agents, without a judge's approval, to obtain personal information, including phone .
Despite the fact that U.S. immigration policy clearly is responsible for allowing foreign terrorists to enter the United States and conduct terrorist activities, the USA PATRIOT Act treats immigration policy almost as an afterthought.
The Patriot Act was crafted just after the Sept. 11 attacks as a grieving nation demanded justice and lawmakers pledged to provide it.
The official title of the USA PATRIOT Act is "Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA PATRIOT) Act of " To view this law in its entirety, click on .
The U.S. Department of the Treasury today identified the Lebanese Canadian Bank SAL together with its subsidiaries (LCB) as a financial institution of primary money laundering concern under Section of the USA PATRIOT Act (Section ).